Fuel life-cycle assessment resources

This resource is meant to provide a literature reference library for GHG-emission and life-cycle assessments of future fuels. The table shows an overview of the reviewed LCA publications published in 2014-2022 including author names and included fuels. The Life Cycle Assessment of Marine Fuels in the Nordic Region provide the complete table where also the covered GHG emissions, the life cycle phases covered and other environmental impacts than climate change considered are included.

Report titleAuthor(s)Fuels included
How can LNG-fuelled ships meet decarbonisation targets? An environmental and economic analysis Balcombe, P., et al. (2021)LNG, HFO, MDO, fossil methanol, fossil and renewable/green hydrogen and ammonia, biogas and biomethanol
Fuels for short sea shipping: A comparative assessment with focus on
environmental impact
Bengtsson et al. (2014)HFO, MGO, biomass-to-liquid fuel, RME, LNG, LBG
Clean fuel options with hydrogen for sea transportation: A life cycle approachBicer and Dincer (2018)Green hydrogen, green ammonia, HFO
Environmental impact categories of hydrogen and ammonia driven transoceanic maritime
vehicles: A comparative evaluation
Bicer and Dincer (2018)Hydrogen, ammonia (biomas, municipal waste, geothermal energy), HFO and hydrogen/ammonia
Comparative assessment of alternative marine fuels in life cycle perspectiveBilgili (2021)Biogas, dimethyl ether (DME),
ethanol, liquefied natural gas (LNG),
liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), fossil
methanol (MeOH), fossil ammonia
(NH3) and biodiesel
Life cycle comparison of marine fuels for IMO 2020 Sulphur CapBilgili (2021)HFO, LFO, VFLSO, ULFSO
Environmental assessment of marine fuels: Liquefied natural gas, liquefied
biogas, methanol and bio-methanol
Brynolf et al. (2014)HFO, LNG, LBG, methanol (fossil
and biomass)
Compliance possibilities for the future ECA regulations through the use of abatement technologies or
change of fuels
Brynolf et al. (2014)HFO, MGO, LNG
Techno-economic assessment of renewable methanol from biomass gasification and PEM
electrolysis for decarbonization of the maritime sector in California
de Fournas and Wei (2022)HFO, MGO and methanol (biomass
and electrolysis)
Comparison of Alternative Marine FuelsDNV GL (2019)LNG, hydrogen (renewable and
fossil), ammonia (renewable and
fossil), methanol, LPG, biodiesel –
HVO, electricity
Assessment of Selected Alternative Fuels and TechnologiesDNV GL (2019)HFO, MGO, LNG, LPG, methanol
(fossil and biomass based), biogas,
biodiesel, hydrogen (fossil and
Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Marine Fuels: A Case Study of Saudi
Crude Oil versus Natural Gas in Different Global Regions
El-Houjeiri et al. (2019)HFO, MGO, LNG
Decarbonising inland ship power system: Alternative solution and assessment methodFan et al. (2021)LNG, battery, solar energy, hybrid
Environmental sustainability of alternative marine propulsion technologies powered by
hydrogen-a life cycle assessment approach
Fernández-Ríos et al. (2022)Hydrogen (H2) (PEMFC and ICE),
diesel (ICE)
Assessment of full life-cycle air emissions of alternative shipping fuelsGilbert et al. (2018)HFO, MDO, LNG, RE and NG
hydrogen + CCS, fossil methanol, soy
SVO, rape SVO, soy and rape
biodiesel, bio-LNG
Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Air Pollutant Emissions from
Conventional and Biobased Marine Fuels
Hawkins et al. (2019)HFO, MGO, MDO, LNG, VLSO, FTdiesel (biomass and fossil based),
pyrolysis oil, biodiesel, renewable
diesel, vegetable oil
Life Cycle Assessment of Alternative Ship Fuels for Coastal Ferry Operating in Republic of KoreaHwang et al. (2020)MGO, LNG, fossil hydrogen (H2)
A comparative life cycle assessment of marine power systemsLing-Chin and Roskilly (2016)Electricity (Li-ion batteries) and MDO
Investigating the implications of a new-build hybrid power system for Roll-on/Roll-off
cargo ships from a sustainability perspective–A life cycle assessment case study
Ling-Chin and Roskilly (2016)Hybrid system with electricity (cold
ironing, PVs and Li-ion batteries),
MDO as prime mover
Investigating a conventional and retrofit power plant on-board a Roll-on/Roll-off cargo
ship from a sustainability perspective–A life cycle assessment case study
Ling-Chin and Roskilly (2016)HFO, MDO and hybrid system with
electricity (diesel genset as prime
mover, PV and Li-ion battery and
An effective framework for life cycle and cost assessment for marine vessels aiming to select optimal
propulsion systems
Jeong et al. (2018)Electricity (Battery hybrid), MDO
Evaluation of the lifecycle environmental benefits of full battery powered ships: Comparative analysis
of marine diesel and electricity
Jeong et al. (2020)Battery and diesel
, Global Shipping Emissions from a Well-to-Wake Perspective: The MariTEAM ModelKramel et al. (2021)HFO, MGO, LNG
A comparison of alternative fuels for shipping in terms of lifecycle energy and costLaw et al. (2021)HFO, LNG, blue hydrogen (H2) and
ammonia (NH3), grey and blue
methanol (MeOH), NG electricity,
blue and green E-H2, E-NH3, EMeOH, biodiesel, bio-MeOH
Reduction of maritime GHG emissions and the potential role of E-fuelsLindstad et al. (2021)LPG, HFO, VLSFO, MGO, LNG,
LPG (ICE or DF-engines), grey
ammonia (NH3), grey hydrogen (H2),
E-fuels (E-LNG, E-ammonia, E-liquid
hydrogen, E-methanol, E-diesel)
Techno-economic assessment of zero-carbon fuelsLloyd’s Register and UMAS (2020)MDO, LSHFO, biodiesel, e-diesel,
bio-methanol, e-methanol, bio-LNG,
e-LNG, ammonia (electro and natural
gas based) and hydrogen (electro and
natural gas based)
The environmental performance of a fossil-free ship propulsion system with onboard carbon
capture–a life cycle assessment of the HyMethShip concept
Malmgren et al. (2021)Methanol (biogenic, fossil, electro),
Technoeconomic and environmental assessment of HyForce, a hydrogen-fuelled harbour
Menon and Chan (2022)Hydrogen (fossil and electrolysis) in
fuel cell and ICE, MDO in ICE
Designing the zero emission vessels of the future:
Technologic, economic and environmental aspects
Mestemaker et al. (2020)LNG (DF with diesel as pilot fuel),
renewable/green hydrogen (FC with
hybrid drive and batteries)
Inclusive Impact Index of Biodiesel Production and Cruise Ship UtilizationNguyen et al. (2015)Biodiesel fuel from jatropha curcas oil
and waste cooking oil, diesel
Live-Life cycle assessment of the electric propulsion ship using solar PVPark et al. (2022)Diesel-electric (MGO), battery (grid
and solar PV system)
The climate implications of using LNG as a marine fuelPavlenko et al. (2020)LNG, MGO, VLSO, HFO
Application of fuel cells with zero-carbon fuels in short-sea shippingPerčić et al. (2022)Grey, blue and green hydrogen (H2)
and ammonia (NH3) (PEMFCs and
SOFCS), diesel
Life-cycle cost assessments of different power system configurations to reduce the
carbon footprint in the Croatian short-sea shipping sector
Perčić et al. (2020)Diesel, electricity Li-ion battery, fossil
methanol, natural gas DME, LNG,
renewable hydrogen powered by Liion battery, fossil hydrogen, B20
(20% biodiesel 80% fossil fuel)
Techno-economic assessment of alternative marine fuels for inland shipping in
Perčić et al. (2021)Diesel, Electricity, fossil methanol,
LNG, NG hydrogen, NG ammonia
and biodiesel
Electrification of inland waterway ships considering power system lifetime
emissions and costs
Perčić et al. (2021)Diesel, Li-ion battery, PV cell batterypowered ship
Life-cycle cost assessment of alternative marine fuels to reduce the carbon
footprint in short-sea shipping: A case study of Croatia
Perčić et al. (2020)Diesel, Li-ion battery from Croatian
electricity mix, PV cell batterypowered ship
Technological, Operational and Energy Pathways for Maritime Transport to Reduce Emissions
Towards 2050
Horton et al. (2022)HFO, MDO, LNG, bioLNG, hydrogen
(grey, blue and green), ammonia
(grey, blue and green), methanol (grey
and green), FAME, HVO
Biofuel Options for Marine Applications: Technoeconomic and Life-Cycle AnalysesTan et al. (2021)HFO, MDO, MGO, FT-diesel (NG,
biomass and coal, biomass and NG,
biomass), LNG, renewable diesel,
SVO, pyrolysis oil (wood), biodiesel
Lignocellulosic marine biofuel: Technoeconomic and environmental assessment for production in
Brazil and Sweden
Tanzer et al. (2019)Several lignocellulosic based marine
biofuels (including e.g., biodiesel)
Life cycle assessment of a hydrogen and fuel cell ropax ferry prototype, in Progress in Life Cycle
Assessment 2019
Trillos et al. (2021)Diesel, diesel hybrid, FC + battery
ship (hydrogen from PEM
Optimisation of operational modes of short-route hybrid ferry: a life cycle assessment case studyWang et al. (2018)Hybrid (battery electric and diesel
gen), diesel electric (DE), diesel
mechanical (DM)
Life cycle analysis and cost assessment of a battery powered ferryWang et al. (2021)MDO engine, battery powered system
Assessment of forest-based biofuels for Arctic marine
Yacout et al. (2021)Biodiesel and bioethanol (from pulp
and paper mills), MGO and HFO
The potential of liquid biofuels in reducing ship emissionsZhou et al. (2020)FAME, hydrotreated renewable diesel,
FT diesel, DME, bio-methanol
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